/root :同上













/sbin:Super BINaries

or Superuser BINaries


/usr:Unix System Resources

or Unix Software Resources

or Unix Shared Resources(这个很重要,很多人会认为这个是user)



ls -- LiSt

cd -- Change Directory

pwd -- Print Working Directory

cp -- CoPy

mv -- MoVe

rm -- ReMove

pushd -- PUSH to Directory

popd -- POP from Directory

mkdir -- MaKe DIRectory

rmdir -- ReMove DIRectory

cat -- CATenate

or conCATenate

sed -- Stream EDitor

diff -- DIFFerence

wc -- Word Count

chmod -- CHange MODe

chown -- CHange OWNer

chgrp -- CHange GRouP

awk -- Aho Weinberger and Kernighan

gawk -- Gnu AWK

mawk -- Minimal AWK

grep -- General Regular Expression Print

ln -- LiNk

tar -- Tape Archive


df -- Disk Free

du -- Disk Usage

dd -- Data Description(有说是Convert and Copy, 但是cc被用掉了,就用dd了)

parted -- PARTition EDitor

fdisk -- Format DISK

lspci -- LiSt Peripheral Component Interconnect

lscpu -- LiSt Central Process Unit

lsusb -- LiSt Universal Serial Bus

lsblk -- LiSt BLocK

mdadm -- Multiple Disk And Device Manager


lvm -- Logical Volume Manager

pvcreate -- Physical Volume CREATE

vgcreate -- Volume Group CREATE

lvcreate -- Logical Volume CREATE

pvdisplay -- Physical Volume DISPLAY

vgdisplay -- Volume Group DISPLAY

lvdisplay -- Logical Volume DISPLAY

pvresize -- Physical Volume RESIZE

vgresize -- Volume Group RESIZE

lvresize -- Logical Volume RESIZE

pvextend -- Physical Volume EXTEND

vgextend -- Volume Group EXTEND

lvextend -- Logical Volume EXTEND

pvremove -- Physical Volume REMOVE

vgremove -- Volume Group REMOVE

lvremove -- Logical Volume REMOVE

pvs -- Physical Volume Status

vgs -- Volume Group Status

lvs -- Logical Volume Status


man -- MANual

apt -- Advanced Packaging Tool

dpkg -- Debian PacKaGe

yum -- Yellow dog Updater, Modified

rpm -- RPM Package Manager

or Redhat Package Manager


useradd -- USER Add

userdel -- USER DELete

usermod -- USER MODify

users -- USER Status

groupadd -- GROUP ADD

groupdel -- GROUP DELete

groupmod -- GROUP MODify

groupmems -- GROUP MEMberS


depmod -- DEPend MODule

lsmod -- LiSt MODule

modprobe -- MODule PROBE

modinfo -- MODule INFOrmation

insmod -- INSert MODule

rmmod -- ReMove MODule

mkfs -- MaKe FileSystem

fsck -- File System Consistency Check

ps -- Processes Status

su -- Substitute User

bash -- Bourne Again SHell

dash -- Debian Almquist SHell

init -- INITialization

ssh -- Secure SHell

wine -- Wine Is Not an Emulator

exec -- EXECute

fstab -- FileSystem TABle

passwd -- PASSWorD

chpasswd -- CHange PASSWorD

pwconv -- PassWord CONVert

pwunconv -- PassWord UNCONVert

tty -- TeleTYpe

sudo -- SuperUser DO

grub -- GRand Unified Bootloader

tzselect -- Time Zone SELECT

sync -- SYNChronize

systemd -- SYSTEM Daemon (里面有systemctl bootctl journalctl loginctl localectl timedatectl 等等,都是blablabla ConTroL)


ed -- EDitor

nano -- Nano's ANOther editor

emacs -- Editor MACroS(还有很多全称,就不罗列了,这个接受度比较广)

vi -- VIsual

vim -- Vi Improved


cc -- C Compiler

gcc -- Gnu Compiler Collection

gcc -- Gnu C Compiler

g++ -- Gnu c++ compiler

gcj -- Gnu Compiler for Java

yacc -- Yet Another Compiler Compiler

guile -- Gnu Ubiquitous Intelligent Language for Extensions

gas -- Gnu Assembler

php -- PHP:Hypertext Preprocessor

ld -- LoaD

gdb -- Gnu DeBug

tcl -- Tool Command Line


gnome -- GNu Object Model Environment

gdm -- Gnome Display Manager

gtk -- Graphic user interface ToolKit

qt -- ………………Toolkit

kde -- K Desktop Environment

lxde -- Lightweight X11 Desktop Environment

xfce -- XForms Common Environment


-h | --help:help

-v | --version:version


gnu gpl : Gnu General Public License

gnu lgpl : Gnu General Lesser Public License

gfdl : Gnu Free Documentation License

agpl : Affero General Public License(或简写为Affero gpl)

apsl : Apple Public Source License

bsd : Berkeley Software Distribution license